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Upper Castle

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Type: Archaeological monuments Date of Foundation: 13 century Status: Regional value Polock

Upper Castle - X century archaeological site - ancient Polotsk Detinets. On the territory of the Upper Castle are also Sophia Cathedral - card of the city and Borisov stone - a monument of the XII century literature.

Upper Castle was settled by polochans in XI and until the XVII century was the center of the city.

Originally Polock fort was on the river Polota in 800 m from the Upper Castle. Polock emerged as a trading center slavic-krivichy on the Western Dvina and Polota, at the intersection of European ways, at the junction of historical and cultural traditions East and West. Once a town on the river Polota was destroyed at the end of X century, construction citadel began in the XI century at the new location - in the Upper Castle. It proved to be more profitable in the strategic sense - it is the confluence of the paintings in the Western Dvina. Exalted area with steep slopes and a trapezoidal area of more than 9 hectares was on all sides by ”closed” water from what was called the castle. On the south side of the river Dvina detinets closed from west and partly from the north - Polota, and from the east in ancient times took a deep ditch, which flowed Black creek.

Upper Castle was formed over several centuries. By source of XVI - XVII centuries it was surrounded by a rampart, with wooden walls and towers, in the XVI  there were nine, and in the XVII century. - 10. The eastern tower was the largest, and perhaps a stone, it was called Red (Royal). The wooden tower called The Main, New, Voevodnaya, Boyar etc. On the Upper Castle lived princes, priests and artisans. As the administrative center of Upper Castle existed prior to the XVII century. In connection with the development of military affairs, he has lost the value of fortification, and then a political function. Wooden walls and towers up to now have not been preserved.

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Location map - Upper Castle

Address Polock GPS Google: 55.486611′ N, 28.758041′ E